Behind the origin of wire and cable is a name that is worth remembering. In the 18th century, the advancement of science and technology, various scientific inventions, and the discovery of an endless stream of century, electric and steam engines, spinning machines, steelmaking technology, etc., pushed human civilization into the era of electrical industry.
In 1732, American scientist Franklin believed that electricity is a fluid without weight and exists in all objects. Through the famous "Kite Test", the existence of "current" was confirmed.
In 1800, Italy's Volt was immersed in salt water with copper and zinc flakes, and connected to the wire to make the first battery. He provided continuous power, which is the ancestor of modern batteries.
In 1831, Faraday discovered the "Electromagnetic Induction Law", laying a theoretical foundation for the emergence of generators, wires and cables. His test device is also the world's first generator.
Others are Maxwell, Hertz, Lorenz, Coulomb, etc. Calling the world to the world and handing them to the great people we use.
In 1729, the British Stephen Gray, in the study of electricity, discovered the phenomenon of electrical conduction, determined that some objects are electrical conductors, and some objects are non-conducting. In order to study how far the electricity can be transmitted, Gray has done many tests with wooden sticks, twine, fishing rods, etc., and the length can reach 650 feet (about 200m). In order to hang the hemp rope used for power transmission in the experiment, he used the silk thread and the copper wire to suspend the hemp rope. As a result, when the copper wire was used, the electricity could not be transmitted along the hemp rope. He suspected that electricity might have run away through copper wire and nails. Further research has found that electricity passing through metal is easier to conduct than through silk. Therefore, an object that easily passes electricity is called a conductor (such as a metal), and an object that is difficult to pass electricity is called a non-conductor (such as a wire).
In 1832, the Russian veteran Xu Lingge buried the telegraph line underground. The six wires were insulated with each other and placed in a glass tube. This is an earlier underground cable in the world.
In 1866, the German Siemens made the world's first industrial generator, which is the pump of human energy.
In 1879, Edison invented the electric light, and the metal wire used in the electric light went to the public with the light of the candlelight.
In 1881, the outstanding genius Tesla invented the "alternator" and "AC transmission technology" to build the framework of today's world power network.
In 1889, the American Francis created an oil-impregnated paper insulated power cable. The structure of various types of high-voltage power cables is still expanding and extending on this basis.
These outstanding inventors of the industrial civilization era let the world bid farewell to the era of human and animal power, bid farewell to the long night of civilization.
Establishment of China's cable industry
In 1897 (Qing Guangxu 22 years), in March, China's first underground power cable was put into use in Shanghai. The 2,700-meter long rubber-lead lead-sheathed lighting cable used in the year was imported. It was not until 42 years later (1939) that domestic cables were produced in Kunming (cable factory). Before 1949, the wire and cable industry had only more than 2,000 employees, about 500 production equipment, and the annual copper consumption was only 6,500 tons. The four wire factories in Kunming, Shanghai, Tianjin and Shenyang share 5,700 tons of copper, accounting for 87.7% of the country's total. The wire and cable industry is developing slowly. It was not until the founding of New China in 1949 that China's wire and cable industry developed rapidly.
2.After the founding of the People
In the process of socialist construction, the wire and cable industry has developed rapidly. In 1952, the number of conductors reached 15,300 tons, which was 2.63 times that before the founding of the People's Republic of China.
During the “First Five-Year Plan” period, the wire and cable industry began to develop healthily in a planned manner. In 1953, the Ministry of Machinery directly under the wire and cable factory has six such as Kunming, Shenyang, Tianjin, Shanghai, Xiangtan and Harbin. Among them, Shenyang Electric Wire Factory is one of the national key construction projects, which was expanded by the Soviet Union. In 1956, it was completed and renamed Shenyang Cable Factory. Shanghai Electric Wire Factory expanded the workshop of a certain line and the line of the line and prepared a cable workshop. In 1957, it was renamed Shanghai Cable Factory. Tianjin Electric Wire Factory imported Hungarian wire drawing machine and enamel machine to build a new enameled wire workshop. In 1963, it was transferred back to the Ministry of Electronics Industry and renamed 609 factory.
At the same time, the state gradually carried out socialist transformation of the rapidly developing private wire factory, and adopted rectification measures against the phenomenon of repeated products, backward technology and inferior quality. Shanghai merged 105 private factories at that time into 18 central factories. Tianjin merged 65 private factories into 10 cable factories. Beijing merged 17 factories into Beijing electric wire factories. Guangzhou merged 18 factories into Guangzhou. In the wire factory, Wuhan merged three plants into Wuhan Wire Factory, and Fuzhou merged 10 plants into Fuzhou Rubber Wire Factory. Through joint restructuring and restructuring, the level of technology and governance has been improved and production development has been promoted.
In order to solve the special equipment problems in the wire and cable industry, the private Shanghai Xinye Iron Works was reorganized into a public-private joint venture Shanghai Xinye Electrical Machinery Factory, which mainly produces cable equipment. From 1952 to 1957, a total of 221 wire and cable special equipments were produced.
In order to carry out research and design work combining scientific research, process design and process equipment design, in October 1957, Shanghai Cable Research and Design was established in Shanghai to conduct research and design of wire and cable products, research on new materials and new technologies, and design of cable factory. The design of cable special equipment and the selection and finalization of complete sets of equipment, and as the technical center of the ministry and the intelligence center of the wire and cable industry. This is the early stage of the history of cable development in China.
3.China cable industry in the past 30 years
Since the 1990s, the wire and cable industry has been hailed as the “nerve” and “blood vessel” of the city, shouldering the functions supporting the pillar industries of the national economy in all walks of life, and growing into the second place in the Chinese machinery industry after the automobile. Big industry. However, the output value of China's cable industry still accounts for only about 15% of the world's cable industry. There are still many development spaces and blank spots in this huge market, which needs to be developed. During the "Eleventh Five-Year Plan" period, according to the annual growth rate of national economy, the growth rate of the wire and cable industry will be equal to the development speed of the national economy, which is expected to be around 8.5%. From a macro perspective, the entire Chinese wire and cable industry is in a period of rapid growth. Therefore, for the wire and cable industry, as an important supporting industry for the national economy, there is such an appropriate saying, "Where there is construction, wire and cable are needed." Therefore, there is a good development in the market. For example, driven by the construction of electric power, railway, rail transit, energy, construction, shipbuilding, automobile and other industries, the output value of the wire and cable industry continues to grow at a high speed.
National level strategic layouts such as “B&R”, “Internet Plus”, “Made in China 2025”, “Industry 4.0” and “Smart Grid” have brought new growth drivers to the wire and cable industry. However, in China's wire and cable industry, foreign-funded enterprises account for a considerable proportion. Nexans, Biriley from Europe, and Furukawa and Sumitomo from Japan all have a considerable share in China's cable market, and the advantages of foreign-funded enterprises in the high-end products market are more obvious. The development of national industry and the progress of China's cable industry need to rely on the general trend of industrial system upgrading, take advantage of China's rise, concentrate its own advantages, catch up with foreign giants and seek to surpass.